International Journal of Business and Social Science

ISSN 2219-1933 (Print), 2219-6021 (Online) DOI: 10.30845/ijbss


Ibn Khaldun, Cyclical Theory and the Rise and Fall of Sokoto Caliphate, Nigeria West Africa
Dr. Ahmed Adam Okene, Dr. Shukri B. Ahmad

By 1817 a remarkable revolution which swept across Bilad Sudan (Western Sudan/West Africa) from 1804 resulted in the establishment of Sokoto Caliphate with Capital at Sokoto currently in Northern Nigeria. The Caliphate with over 31 emirates established justices, integrity, honesty and multicultural statecraft and mutual co-existence in the realms of political administration, economics, social imperatives and diplomatic affairs. However about four decades into its creation, the Caliphate began to decline in contents and substance ostensibly in line with the Ibn Khaldunian cyclical theory of the rise and fall of nation. By 1904, the British brought the Caliphate system to an end by its invasion and subsequent occupation. A multi disciplinary
study of this nature locates a historical phenomenon within a universal theory in order to appreciate the generational nature of the pontification. Its continue relevance in the contemporary times in a different form rekindle the senses of self consciousness, togetherness, confidence and hope among the diverse peoples and groups influenced by the Caliphate based on common experience, history and shared destiny. It also adds to the existing literature on the subject matter just as it evokes discourse at global level.

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